[1] Perspective drawing

First, let us explain what perspective drawing is.
Perspective drawing is a technique used to depict spatial depth, or perspective. In other words, it allows you to accurately draw a three dimensional object onto a two dimensional plane.

There are typically three types of perspective drawing: one-point perspective, two-point perspective, and three-point perspective.

One-point perspective:

One-point perspective is often used for compositions that look at objects from the front.

Lines extending from the foreground to the background gather (converge) at one point. The point of convergence is called the “vanishing point”.
The vanishing point will always be on the horizontal line, or “eye level” of the scene, which represents the height of the eye or camera of the observer.

Two-point perspective:

Two-point perspective is used for compositions that look at objects at an angle. As it is close to what the human eye normally sees, it is the most used perspective when drawing manga backgrounds and illustrations.

In one-point perspective, lines converged on one point from the background to the foreground. In two-point perspective, in addition to depth, lines representing width also converge.
As seen in the example below, two lines going in different directions converge on their respective vanishing point.
Hence the name “two-point perspective”. Even in two-point perspective, vanishing points are on the eye level.

Three-point perspective:

Three-point perspective is used for drawing compositions that are looking up at a large object or looking down from a high place.

In two-point perspective, lines representing depth and width converge on two separate vanishing points.
In three-point perspective, lines representing height stretch toward a third vanishing point.
For compositions that are looking up, the height vanishing point is above the object.

When looking down, the height vanishing point is below the object.

[2] Perspective rulers

In CLIP STUDIO PAINT, lines that follow perspective can easily be drawn freehand with pens and other drawing tools by using the [Perspective ruler].
Here, we will explain how to use the perspective ruler to draw in each type of perspective.

*1. Creating perspective rulers

The [Create Perspective Ruler] dialog can be displayed by selecting [Layer] menu→[Ruler]→[Create Perspective Ruler].
In the [Create Perspective Ruler] dialog’s “Type”, select a type of perspective and click [OK] to create a perspective ruler.
If “Create new layer” is selected, a perspective ruler will be created on a new raster layer.
If not, a perspective ruler will be created on the selected layer.

After creating a perspective ruler, move the eye level and vanishing point to set up the perspective.
The current tool will automatically be set to the [Object] tool after creating the ruler. Click on a section of the perspective ruler.
Control handles will be displayed, enabling movement of the eye level and vanishing points.

*2. Perspective ruler terminology

[Eye level]……The height of the eyes or camera of the person viewing the scene.
It will match the horizontal line(or horizon) on the canvas. Anything above the eye level will be a composition where the viewer is looking up, and anything below it will be looked down upon.

[Vanishing point]……The point(s) where an object’s width, depth, and height lines converge.
Vanishing points of width and depth lines parallel to the ground will always be on the eye level.

[Guide]……The pair of lines stretching from the vanishing point. They will always be attached to a vanishing point.
Other than as guides when drawing, they are used as controllers when deciding the position of vanishing points.

[Support]……Lines that are only displayed when drawing one-point perspective or two-point perspective. They are support lines that indicate the vertical lines in the height direction.

Support lines can be used as drawing guides as they can be moved with the [Object] tool.

[Handle]……Handles that are used to control the elements of the entire ruler, vanishing points, guide lines and support lines.