[1] CLIP STUDIO PAINT synthesis mode full explanation [Introduction-addition (light emission)]

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The text is written in Japanese in the image, but please be assured that the same text is transcribed into the text in the article so that it can be translated.

Below, although the content is the same as this article, we have also created a video.

There is also an explanation in some videos, so please have a look if you like.

▼ Video

What is composite mode?

First of all, the compositing mode is this above the layer window such as multiplication and screen.

There are various names such as blend mode and drawing mode, but here we will call them composite mode.

In addition to layers, drawing tools also have a compositing mode.

The basic processing is the same, but there is also a compositing mode that is only available for drawing tools, so I would like to explain the compositing mode of layers as the main axis and the brush as well.

Sorting order of composite mode

In fact, the compositing modes are roughly grouped and lined up.

Top normal is the basic effect

The effect of darkening mainly from comparison (dark) to subtraction

The effect of brightening mainly from comparison (bright) to addition (light emission)

Contrast and comparison from overlay to division

Finally, the hue-brightness is the color change.

The darkening effect and the brightening effect above are arranged so that they are roughly paired, so if you remember them as a set, it will be easier to select the composition mode.

Mathematical terms such as multiplication and addition are used in the names of compositing modes, and as the name implies, various calculations are used in the color compositing process.

I will introduce some of these formulas at the time of detailed explanation, so I will explain the points that I want you to know first.

First of all, the color information called RGB value is mainly used in the calculation of the composition mode.

The number displayed at the bottom right of the color circle window or on the RGB tab of the color slider.

0 is black and 255 is white, and the color is determined by how much Red, Green, and Blue are included.

Then, when calculating, normalize the numbers 0 to 255 to 0 to 1 and calculate.

It's a little different, but it feels like 0% to 100%.

The normalized number is calculated by RGB value ÷ 255.

In addition, I will explain using the terms basic color and composite color in the formula, but since the color of the lower layer is called the basic color and the color of the upper layer with the composite mode changed is called the composite color. Please remember it well.

▼ Text in the image

a formula

Result color = basic color * composite color / 255 ・ ・ ・ Calculate by entering the above RGB values

【Normalization】

Result color = basic color * composite color ・ ・ ・ Calculate by entering the number in () below

[1] Normal

This is the initial state with nothing set.

The color of the upper layer that overlaps is displayed as it is.

【2】Comparison (dark)

Compares the RGB values with the layer below and displays the color with the smaller value (darker).

It can be used when compositing images or when you want to change the color of only the bright color part.

It is synthesized so that it is more familiar than the color comparison (dark).

← Comparison (dark) Color comparison (dark) →

[3] Multiplication

The multiplication will be a darker color than the original color.

As the name suggests, it multiplies RGB values.

【a formula】

Result color = basic color * composite color / 255

Result color = basic color * composite color

Since it is a simple multiplication, if the brightness of the composite color (RGB value) is 0.5, the brightness of the basic color will be x0.5, that is, half the brightness. If the composite color is 0.3, the brightness will be one-third.

The multiplication layer is often used mainly for shadowing, but it should be noted that some colors tend to be a little dull and dark.

Also, since the ratio of light and darkness of the lower layer can be darkened as it is, it is possible to create a soft atmosphere without destroying the original impression so much by putting a single color lightly on the whole.

[4] Burning color

The burn-in color will also be darker than the original color like multiplication, but the contrast will be stronger.

The inverted lower layer is divided by the upper layer, and the result is inverted.

【a formula】

Result color = 255- (255-basic color) * 255 / composite color

Result color = 1- (1-basic color) / composite color

Since the contrast is much stronger, it can be used in the same way as level correction, and when you want a sharper brightness, you can put it a little higher and it will look tighter.

Since black appears strongly, you need to be careful about blackout.

[5] Burning (linear)

Each layer is inverted, and the sum of the upper layers is inverted.

【a formula】

Result color = 255-{(255-basic color) + (255-composite color)}

Result color = 1-{(1-basic color) + (1-synthetic color)}

Result color = 0 When the sum is 255 or less

Result color + composite color-255 When the sum is 255 or more

← Burning color Burning (linear) →

It is similar to the burn-in color, but it does not have as much contrast as the burn-in color, and it is a composite mode that darkens bright areas.

Burning linear gives the color as seen through a filter like 3D glasses.

Compared to multiplication, it makes the saturation a little higher and darkens it firmly, so it is suitable for expressing darkness, night, shadow, etc. when you want to draw a crisp shadow, when you want to unify the overall color. I will.

[6] Subtraction

Subtraction is, as the name implies, subtraction of RGB values.

【a formula】

Result color = basic color-composite color

← Burning (linear) subtraction →

In fact, subtraction and burning linear have almost the same effect.

If you invert the subtraction color (hue brightness saturation) and make it burn linear, the result will be the same as when subtraction.

However, the decisive difference between these two is that the result does not change even if the lower layer and the upper layer are reversed in the burn linear one, while the subtraction one is the lower layer and the upper layer. The result will change if the layers of are reversed.

Considering this characteristic, the burn-in linear layer is suitable for creating a burn-in linear layer on the basic layer and adding it, and the subtraction method makes the basic layer itself subtraction. I think it would be better to create a normal layer underneath and add it.

【7】Comparison (Ming)

This is the opposite of comparison (dark), and is a composite mode that displays the larger number (brighter) when comparing RGB values.

If you duplicate the illustration, blur it a little, and compare it (bright), you can easily perform a process called the diffusion effect that diffuses the light.

[8] Screen

The screen is the opposite effect of multiplication, brightening the color of the underlying layer.

【a formula】

Result color = basic color + composite color-basic color * composite color / 255

Result color = 1- (1-basic color) (1-composite color)

It's a little complicated, but both the basic color and the composite color are multiplied by the inverted ones, and the result is further inverted.

← Original picture screen →

Similar to multiplication, the screen also becomes white and dull depending on the color, so it is a compositing mode suitable for expressing soft light.

[9] Dodge color

The opposite of the burn-in color, it brightens while increasing the contrast.

The mechanism is that the upper layer is inverted and the lower layer is divided.

【a formula】

Result color = basic color * 255 / (255-composite color)

Result color = basic color / (1-composite color)

I don't want it to shine, but I think it's easy to use when you want to make it brighter and more saturated.

[10] Dodge (light emission)

Dodge (light emission) is a subspecies synthesis mode of dodge color, which I think is the opposite of burning linear in order.

When the composite color has 100% opacity, it has the same effect as the dodge color, but when it becomes translucent, the effect is stronger than the dodge color.

It is an image that the effect that the color used in the dodge color gets closer to black is created by the opacity in the dodge (emission).

← Dodge color Dodge (light emission) →

It is suitable for expressions such as glaring and fairly strong light, so it is suitable for metallic luster.

Addition is the opposite effect of burning linear, and is called dodging (linear) depending on the software.

The mechanism is simply to add the RGB values.

【a formula】

Result color = composite color + basic color

This is a composite mode that is suitable when you do not want to increase the contrast but want stronger light or want to emit light.

This is also a variant of addition like dodging (light emission), and is a synthetic mode that has a strong effect even in translucent areas.

Similar to dodging (light emission), it is suitable for adjustments while retaining the additional light emission feeling.

This is the end of the first round. Next time, I will explain from overlay to brightness.

[2] Overlay-brightness

https://tips.clip-studio.com/ja-jp/articles/4163

[3] Transparent to erase (comparison)

https://tips.clip-studio.com/ja-jp/articles/4165